Product Registration
devoted to making a better vibration plate

Contact us

Linear Vibration vs Pivotal Oscillation

Linear vibration and pivotal oscillation are the two dominant motion patterns adopted in the design of whole body vibration plates.

Except for some very rare vibration plate models, all vibration plate models are either linear vibration type or pivotal oscillation type. Some models combine the two types of vibration motions in one machine.

The mechanical mechanisms of these two motion patterns are distinctively different, so are their influence to human body. This article discusses each motion pattern in detail and compares them side by side.

Motion Pattern Comparison

Linear Vibration
Eccentric Wheel Device
Pivotal Oscillation
Planar 4-bar Linkage Device
Vibration Plate 3D Linear
vibration plate - Pivotal Oscillation
High Frequency
Low Amplitude
Low Frequency
High Amplitude
Vibration Plate 3D Linear
vibration plate - Pivotal Oscillation

Above animations are slow motion vibration (4Hz). In reality, a linear vibration plate usually vibrates at the frequency from 15Hz to 40Hz; and pivotal oscillation plates from 5Hz to 15Hz.

Linear Vibration

linear vibration animation

A linear vibration plate use an eccentric wheel device and a set of supporting springs to generate vibration.

Eccentric wheel device is the most widely used method to produce vibration. iPhone adopts a tiny eccentric wheel device to make vibration.

motor-eccentric wheel[Eccentric Wheel & Motor]

In a linear vibration plate, a set of eccentric wheels rotate and create circular centrifugal force. The force drives the exercise platform to move in a vertical oval trajectory. The supporting springs regulate the exercise platform to move mainly in vertical direction and less in horizontal direction.

The phrase "linear" comes from the linear attribute of the spring. In a vibration cycle, the spring is pulled and pressed, the spring force and the change of the length are in proportion, or in other words, in a linear relationship. Therefore, this type of motion is called linear vibration.

Pivotal Oscillation

pivotal oscillation animation

A pivotal oscillation plate is a planar 4-bar linkage device.

Pivotal oscillation plates are the most sold type of vibration plates in the market. Manufacturers general call them vibration plates, without clarifying their pivotal oscillation movement type.

four-bar linkage system vibration
[4-bar Linkage]

Planar 4-bar device transfers the motor rotation to reciprocating movement.

For a pivotal oscillation plate, the motor rotates the crank-bar through a belt. The crank-bar is in a round shape so the belt can rotate it. The crank-bar transmits the movement to the coupler-bar and the rocker-bar. The exercise platform is the the rocker-bar. As the crank-bar rotates, the coupler-bar drags rocker-bar (the exercise platform) to move up and down in a see-saw motion.

The exercise platform oscillates around a fixed pivotal point. Such a motion is literally called pivotal oscillation.

actually not a vibration planar four-bar linkage

A pivotal oscillation plate resembles an oil pumpjack, also a 4-bar linkage device. Only the oil pumpjack moves much slower.

Pivotal oscillation is actually not a vibration. It lacks the characteristics of a vibration, except for its reciprocating movement.

The structure of a pivotal oscillation plate is rigid system. Its amplitude does not yield to the body weight.

VT027 pivotal oscillation

[Inside a pivotal oscillation plate - VT027]

The name

Manufacturers and sellers usually refer pivotal oscillation plates as vibration plates in general.

Pivotal oscillation is distinctively different from linear vibration. It is necessary to distinguish them from each other.

An easy way is just to call a pivotal oscillation type of machine as a pivotal oscillation plate.

Pivotal Oscillation Plate
Lateral Oscillation pivotal oscillation animation

4-bar linkage device can also be designed to create a left-right type of motion called lateral oscillation.

In fact, lateral oscillation also moves around a pivotal point. It is just that its pivotal point is fixed on the bottom, and it is designed with long coupler-bar. Such an arrangement creates a left-right direction oscillation.

Some manufacturers make vibration plate models that have two 4-bar linkage devices to create both pivotal oscillation and lateral oscillation.

We believe the lateral oscillation type of motion can harm your knee joint cartilage and ligaments.

may harm your knee joints

Attributes Comparison

Linear vibration and pivotal oscillation each has their own unique attributes. Most significant differences are the vibration frequency and amplitude.


Vibration frequency indicates how many reciprocating movement in one second. A vibration plate running on 30Hz means its exercise platform move up-and-down 30 times each second.

frequency of linear vibration plate
[VibePlate 10-60Hz]

Linear vibration plates can achieve higher vibration frequency. Most linear vibration plates in the market are designed to run at the frequency range between 15Hz to 60Hz.

Some linear vibration models run on a fixed frequency, while others run on adjustable frequency.

Major brands that offer linear vibration plates are Power Plate and Vibeplate.

Vibration Therapeutic's model VT003F and VT007 offers a low cost alternative for linear vibration. VT003F and VT007 are designed for home use. They feature adjustable frequency from 15Hz to 40Hz and two amplitude settings.

VT007 Linear Vibration Plate
[VT007 frequency: 15-40Hz]

frequency of pivotal oscillation
pivotal oscillation plate [LifePro Waver 4-12Hz]

Pivotal oscillation plates are mostly designed to work in the frequency range below 15Hz. The majority of the consumer grade vibration plates available in the market are pivotal oscillation models.

Precision and material constraint make it costly to make a durable pivotal oscillation model to run at high frequency (above 15Hz). The reason is that 1) the small bearings that connect the for bar system can quickly wear out at high rotation speed; and 2) the coupler-bar can reach fatigue much sooner in high speed movement.

pivotal oscillation plate [Galileo S25 10-30Hz]

German made Galileo brand models are probably the only available pivotal oscillation models that can achieve frequency above 30Hz.

Galileo S25 can achieve a 30Hz high frequency and a 8mm peak-to-peak amplitude (G-force = 8.2).

Another Galileo model S40 can achieve 33Hz and 9.4mm amplitude. Being both high frequency and high amplitude, the model S40 can achieve a G-force of 11.3, probably the highest among all vibration plates available in the market.

Pivotal oscillation plates are sold in many brands or off-brands. Most models are redundant in terms of motion patters and parameters.

Vibration Therapeutic makes VT027 pivotal oscillation plate. The big difference for VT027 is its patented all aluminum twin-coupler design. VT027 is a high performance machine built inside a slim machine body but still offer a large and flat exercise platform.

Pivotal Oscillation frequency
[VT027 Pivotal Oscillation 5-14Hz]


The amplitude of a vibration plate the maximum movement range of its exercise platform.

amplitude of linear vibration
vibration-amplitude [VT003F amplitude: 1.5-3mm]

Linear vibration plates are designed to work at low amplitude, usually less than 3mm. The supporting springs need to maintain a certain rigidity in order to support and stabilize the body weight. The needed rigidity limits the achievable amplitude. At higher frequency, the damping effect of the forced vibration also limits the amplitude.

Nevertheless, low amplitude is desirable for a high frequency vibration plate for the health improvement purposes.

A linear vibration plate can be designed to have adjustable amplitude settings by changing the weight or number of eccentric wheels. For example VT003F are VT007 are designed to offer two amplitude settings (Hi and Lo).

amplitude of pivotal oscillation

amplitude[VT027 amplitude 0-10mm]

Pivotal oscillation plate, with its 4-bar linkage structure, can be designed to achieve higher amplitude.

Because of its pivotal motion, the amplitude is zero at the center of the exercise platform, and reaches the highest value at the two sides.

When standing on a pivotal oscillation plate, the user can adjust the distance between his/her two feet to get a different vertical displacement.

Most pivotal oscillation plates on the market have the amplitude between 8mm and 10mm.

Rigid Link, Flexible Link & Power Consumption

    Another major opposite attribute of the two types of vibration plates are

  • Linear vibration plate is a flexible link system.
  • Pivotal oscillation plate is a rigid link system.

flexible link system
power plate[Power Plate My3 160W]

Linear vibration plate is a flexible link system. Its spring supports allow the vibration amplitude to yield to the body weight. Theoretically for a linear vibration plate, the motor power consumption is nearly constant, irrelevant to the body weight. A linear vibration plate requires a smaller motor because the tolerance requirement for power surge is low.

For example, Vibration Therapeutic's linear vibration plate model VT007 only needs a 80W motor to generate powerful vibration. Even for a large size vibration plate like Power Plate My3, the motor power consumption is 160W.

Linear vibration plates are less likely to get the motor burned.

rigid link system
rigid link of pivotal oscillation plate[Steel Frame of VT027]

Pivotal oscillation plate is a rigid link system. The planar 4-bar linkage system consists of rigid bars. The oscillation amplitude is fixed, regardless the load (body weight).

User body weight affects the motor power consumption. Extra motor power capacity is needed to accommodate the situation of sudden load increase, such as when the body weight falls on just one side of the platform. Therefore the motor power capacity needs to cover power surge tolerance for the protection of the motor.

For a pivotal oscillation plate that runs max 15Hz frequency and 10 mm amplitude, designed for body weight below 265LB, a 200W motor is sufficient.

The belt that transmits the movement from motor to crank bar is a also flexible link. It provides a layer of protection to the motor for over load. In normal use, the belt holds well. Over time the belt can become loose.

speed compensation

As a protection design, when there is a sudden load surge, the motor will rotate faster to compensate the needed motor power. The speed change is more evident when the machine oscillate at a very low frequency. This design is to protect the motor by reducing the electric current in the rotor coil.

So when you put your entire body weight on one side of a pivotal oscillation plate, the machine will speed up the oscillation. You feel more difference when the frequency is like 5Hz. Your machine is programmed this way, not a malfunction.

Impact on Human Body

Linear vibration and pivotal oscillation each have its own unique impact on the human body. Their user experiences are very different.

Linear Vibration
Vibration Plate 3D Linear
Pivotal Oscillation
vibration plate - Pivotal Oscillation

Frequency: 15 - 50Hz

Amplitude: 1 - 3 mm

Frequency: 5 - 15Hz

Amplitude: 8 - 12mm

Vibration frequency range matches human tissue natural frequency. The resonance effect induces intensive muscle contraction.

Small range of motion; The muscle is tight.

Vibration energy transmitted deep into tissue. Muscle contraction damps the vibration.

The high amplitude motion swings the body and tissues high, but not enough frequency to effectively induces muscle contraction.

Large range of motion; The muscle is loose.

The motion shakes the entire body vigorously. Muscles swing high in a whole piece.

High impact.

Intensive skeletal muscle contraction enhances muscle and bone strength.

Vertical motion transmitted to upper body and head, causing nausea and dizziness for some people.

Low impact.

The alternate movement resembles walking motion, beneficial for gait training.

The see-saw motion does not transmit to the upper body, very relax to use.

Vibration evenly distributed on the entire exercise board, accommodating many exercise postures.

The exercise board swings high on the two sides, but still at the center, limiting many exercise postures.

High noise

Low noise

Design Comparison

Linear vibration plates and pivotal oscillation plates both can be designed as similar style.

Pivotal oscillation plates are more towards a long rectangular, in order to get a higher amplitude at the two ends. Some pivotal oscillation plates have the exercise board designed as a slightly curved shape to work better with the pivotal motion.

Linear vibration plates are more toward a short rectangular or round square shape.

Some models of both types are designed with handrails.

Most designs are redundant in terms of motion patterns, parameters and functions.

Linear Vibration Plates

linear vibration plate
Vibe Plate Mini
bulletproof vibration plate
PowerPlate Pro7

Pivotal Oscillation Plates

lifepro vibration
Linear vibration

pivotal oscillation
Mix pattern vibration
Other Rare Types

Mixed Motion Vibration Plates

lifepro 4D plate
bluefin 4D plate
Jintuo mixed motion
Jintuo mixed motion

© 2017 - 2021 Vibration Therapeutic® All rights reserved.